Drought Shortens the Season

Walking through the farmers’ market, it may not be readily apparent that farmers are struggling to bring you fresh produce. In California, farmers and farm workers have been among those most heavily hit by the drought this year.

Wells are not pumping enough water to trees.

Wells are not pumping enough water to trees.

A recent UC Davis study predicts that 14,500 jobs will be lost this year just in the Central Valley because farms are getting only two-thirds of their typical water allocation. With fewer crops being planted, fewer workers are needed, and people have less money to support local businesses. With fewer crops to harvest after leaving some of their fields fallow, or growing a placeholder crop to keep the soil from eroding, some are even participating in fewer farmers’ markets.

Most farmers are very conscious of their water usage. Utilizing drip irrigation, planting cover crops, applying green waste, and using crop rotation have helped some farmers maintain soil moisture and fertility while making the most out of its water use. Others are lucky to have wells on their property but don’t like to use too much of the ground water because of pulling up the salinity in the ground – not good for crops!

Jesus Castellanos of Castellanos Farm in Dinuba says that he’s had to drive wells deeper to get to the water. He says, “We are in critical condition. If 2 or 3 of my pumps dry up, we will go out of business because the bank does not finance them and there is no other way to make money…Not only does it cost $40,000 to $50,000 to drill for each pump, it will take 3 to 5 months to complete.”

With crazy spring weather added to the drought, fruit crops have been arriving two to three weeks early this year and their seasonality is shortened. We saw asparagus arrive two weeks early and end quickly, certain peach varieties arrived in May instead of June and pears came in August when they should have been harvested in September. It’s a wait-and-see for how the drought will affect fall and winter row crops and vegetables, but it will be rough.

drought peaches

Drought affects entire rows of peaches because there is not enough well water.

Farmers are more worried about next year if we don’t get a substantial amount of rain this winter. The cumulative effect of several years without rain means than ground water reserves will be extremely low.

Jesus says, “If my pumps dry up, I will have to let my workers go, who financially depend on working at my farm. However the worse is yet to come. I cannot imagine having to worry about our own drinking water. The water we drink comes from the pump at the farm and our house drinking water is not connected to the city’s water. This means that we may have to move somewhere else to find drinking water.”

You may not see the availability of produce change this year, but if rain doesn’t come this winter and spring, farmers will be hard pressed to keep their acreage planted and watered now and the next few years.

On your next trip to your farmers’ market expect to see fruits and certain vegetables arriving earlier than expected and have a shorter season. And let’s all hope we have a rainy season ahead.

August 2014 Market Thymes Newsletter

August-1August 2014 Market Thymes Newsletter

There’s nothing better than sitting down to sweet summer corn on the cob, hot off the grill. Sweet corn is a real treat that’s hard to top for flavor, freshness, and just plain delicious summer fun. Unlike field corn varieties, which are harvested when the kernels are dry and mature (dent stage), sweet corn is picked when immature (milk stage) and prepared and eaten as a vegetable, rather than a grain. You’ll find white, yellow, and bi-color sweet corn at the farmers’ markets right now and it will be available through most of October.

Saving the Gravenstein - Drought, Economics, and Preservation

The Gravenstein is one of my favorite apples. Its crisp tart flavor is a late summer delight. But with the continued California drought and the profitability of vineyards, apple orchards in Sonoma County are becoming scarcer.

I did a little research on the Gravenstein and found that Russian fur traders brought them to the Sonoma area in the mid-1800s. Over 18,000 acres were eventually planted in the lush rolling hills in the following 100 years. Almost every orchard supplied local families with enough apples for juicing, drying, and eating through the winter months.

In the 1970s and through the 1990s, increasing competition from the Washington apple industry, the loss of a significant market with the end of the Vietnam War (the army used Gravensteins to supply troops with applesauce), and the introduction of several generic, easy-to-store and ship apple varieties, caused the Gravenstein apple growers to receive only pennies per pound for their apples. After years of losing money, many growers sold their land or transformed their acreage into more lucrative vineyards.

Walker Ranch1

During a recent trip to Bodega Bay and Sonoma’s West County we drove along winding back roads lined with wild blackberry bushes. Ranches were filled with wandering beef cattle and dairy cows, vineyards showed off rows of recently planted grape vines in orderly procession, and apple orchards still covered the gentle hills, trees heavy with apples.

Driving up a narrow, orchard-lined dirt road, we stopped at Walker Ranch in Graton where Lee and Barbara Walker grow Gravenstein apples on 50 acres. They are one of the few remaining Gravenstein orchards in the area and their family has been growing apples for over 100 years. They also grow about 25 other apple varieties that are harvested through November, concentrating on the older heirloom varieties like the Bellflower, the Baldwin, and the Arkansas Black. Lee’s grandfather planted some of the original trees in 1910 and they’re still producing apples!

As we pull into the Walker farm, gnarled old apple trees stand like proud sentinels on the terraced hills surrounding the processing shed. Backlit by the afternoon sun, they take on an almost eerie sculptural look. An old tractor sits at the base of the hill, now charged with watching the harvest come in and providing entertainment for climbing children. Huge old wooden crates hold the latest apple harvest as workers move in and out of the packing shed, loading and unloading the latest crop. Inside the shed on the wall behind the counter are blue ribbons and trophies for apple excellence. We’re greeted like old friends by Barbara Walker, owner of Walker Ranch as we order a huge box of apples.

I chatted with Barbara about how the orchard was doing in this prolonged drought. She said, “We’ve picked 70% of what we did last year because of lack of water. And if we don’t get rain this coming season, who knows what we’ll get next year.”

She also said that with so few acres remaining of this precious heirloom apple, farmers are afraid they might lose some of their trees if they don’t get substantial rain this winter.Walker Ranch small

There is a long history of Gravensteins in the West County area, and though many farmers have removed these wonderful old trees to put in more profitable wine grapes, there are those stalwart farmers like the Walkers who refuse to let the Gravenstein apple disappear into the history books. Barbara says, “We love these apples and farming – and we love to see the same customers return every year. It’s like family.”

There are now fewer than 800 acres of Gravenstein orchards in the county. As we drive back to Bodega with our big box of gorgeous Gravensteins it is sad to see fewer orchards  than the year before. Grape vines now cover some of the acreage I remember as being filled with apple trees.

But all is not lost – yet. There are efforts underway to preserve what little acreage is left and efforts to plant new acreage. The Gravenstein Apple Fair in early August reminds visitors and locals alike that this heirloom apple deserves to be preserved. And the Slow Food USA Gravenstein Apple Presidia is working with various organizations and farmers to revive interest in the apple.

We hope to continue to visit the Walkers and other Gravenstein apple farms in West County in the years to come. Let’s hope next year when we drive down the Gravenstein Highway there will still be many rows of these wonderful old apple trees.

Farming in Drought: Grass-fed meat producers struggle to grow grass

Rachel de Rosa surveys her ewes, which are grazing a piece of irrigated pasture. Even in drought, the farm must irrigate and grow some grass in order to keep their sheep healthy. The sprinklers also help keep the sheep cool.

Rachel de Rosa surveys her ewes, which are grazing a piece of irrigated pasture. Even in drought, the farm must irrigate and grow some grass in order to keep their sheep healthy. The sprinklers also help keep the sheep cool. Photo by Sarah Trent.

Lisa Leonard opens the gate to her sheep pasture in the heart of the Capay Valley and walks a few paces inside. In the distance, the hills flanking this narrow Yolo County valley rise up, covered in patches of green forest — stark contrast to the dry, yellowed fields and browning oak trees on the valley floor.

Behind us, the rest of Winddancer Ranch is dotted with a dozen Spanish turkeys and a collection of rusty-but-working farm equipment; the plott hound keeping watch has kicked up a cloud of dust. As we move forward into the field, some 400 Navajo-Churro ewes flock together.

Lisa and her partner, Jim, came here 10 years ago from the Bay Area to raise rare, heritage breeds of meat animals on grass rather than commercial feed-lots — Lisa’s only alternative to becoming vegetarian, she said. This year, she’s harvested more lambs than usual, culling her herd because there’s not enough grass to support them.

Selling more meat any other year would mean increased profit for her farm. This year, despite her efforts to grow enough grass, she had to buy two tractor-trailers of hay to feed the animals.

“It wiped out any revenue we could possibly make,” she said.

This year, they won’t even break even.

In mid-July, the University of California, Davis, published an economic analysis of the 2014 drought. It summarizes farm revenue and job loss estimates, tallies the number of unused (fallowed) acres, and recommends lawmakers work to improve groundwater management across the state to preserve California’s primary source of water during drought years.

Looking at direct losses in crop, livestock, and dairy revenue along with the additional costs of pumping water, the report estimates a total economic loss of $2.2 billion in 2014 due to drought. And this number may be low: some farmers have criticized the report, suggesting it may not take full account of the indirect losses caused by lower crop production.

Lisa Leonard keeps only rare and heritage breeds of animals, including Navajo-Churro sheep, which she raises for wool, milk (cheese), and meat.

Lisa Leonard keeps only rare and heritage breeds of animals, including Navajo-Churro sheep, which she raises for wool, milk (cheese), and meat. Photo by Sarah Trent.

At Winddancer Ranch and other small, grass-fed meat operations, the direct losses are enough to worry about, and are shaping the way these farms are managed. Lisa let a valuable alfalfa field go dormant in favor of irrigating Sudan grass: this grass is not as good a feed as alfalfa, but it takes less water. “Hopefully, hopefully, hopefully the alfalfa will come back with the [winter] rain,” she said. Replanting alfalfa would be a major investment.

Until it does rain, all Lisa can do is be careful, keep an eye on how much groundwater is in her well, and try to be as efficient as possible in using it. Any time she uses water, she said, it serves two or three purposes: when she irrigates her fruit trees, for example, she grazes rabbits on the grasses that grow in between.

This year more than ever, she said, “we’re acutely aware of the balancing act of using that resource effectively.”

Just down the road, Casa Rosa Farm knows this balancing act well. Rachel de Rosa and her partner, Anthony, moved to the Capay Valley from Madera County less than two years ago, in part because larger operations surrounding their original farm were sucking the groundwater dry. Here, Rachel said, with no big ag wells nearby, they’re lucky to manage their own aquifer.

In response to the drought, the de Rosas opted against planting summer crops this year, skipped a planned alfalfa planting in their olive orchard, are irrigating about half of their available sheep pasture, and feel lucky to have a family connection with hay to help feed their 100% grass-fed California Red Sheep and a small herd of Limousin cattle.

Rachel stresses that she considers Casa Rosa to be a farm rather than a ranch: they raise crops, like grass, and feed them to the animals. In a year with about one tenth of the normal rainfall, when grass is difficult and resource-intensive to farm, feeding the animals is difficult too.

Like Lisa, Rachel has had to cull her sheep herd — she’d been aiming to increase her 2013 flock of 75 ewes to 100. Instead, she cut back to about 50 to reduce stress on the pasture.

Earlier this year, Winddancer Ranch and Casa Rosa Farm joined forces with two other Capay Valley grass-fed meat producers to reduce stress on themselves and their families — forming the Capay Valley Meat Co-op had little to do with the drought, but may help each farm get through hard times in other ways: the four women farm-owners take turns selling at farmers’ markets so each can maintain their own market income without sacrificing every Saturday or having to drive hundreds of miles each week.

Alexis Robertson shows off the newest addition to Skyelark Ranch: a "trailer park" of chicken coops to house their laying hens, which have free range of the farm all day.

Alexis Robertson shows off the newest addition to Skyelark Ranch: a “trailer park” of chicken coops to house their laying hens, which have free range of the farm all day. Photo by Sarah Trent.

Alexis Robertson of four-year-old Skyelark Ranch, a third member of the co-op, said the Capay Valley community, including the co-op and their neighbors, has been a valuable resource as she and her partner, Gillis, continue learning how to farm their chickens, hogs, and sheep. Alexis joked that she and Gillis offered “lawn mowing” services to their neighbors, and were able to graze their sheep on neighbors’ fields and orchards when their own pasture wasn’t enough.

Facing one of California’s worst droughts just four years into their farming career “made the growth curve even steeper,” Alexis said, but added that she feels somewhat insulated from the impact she’s heard about around the state. “We’re small, we’re not at our carrying capacity, so we maybe have a little flexibility,” she said. While the drought has delayed her plans to grow the farm, she expects Skyelark will get through it alright.

She also hopes that it bodes well for her future in farming: “We’ve only been farming four years, so every year has been below normal water levels,” she said. “Imagine how we’ll do in a normal year!”

PCFMA Celebrates National Farmers’ Market Week With 2nd Annual “Love My Market” Photo Contest

Love-My-market-posterJoin Pacific Coast Farmers’ Market Association (PCFMA) in celebrating National Farmers’ Market Week this year from August 3rd to 9th. PCFMA joins the USDA and farmers’ markets around the country in celebrating the first week of August. “Farmers markets are an important public face for agriculture and a critical part of our nation’s food system,” said Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack. “They provide benefits not only to the farmers looking for important income opportunities, but also help fill a growing consumer demand for fresh, healthy foods.”

PCFMA will celebrate throughout the entire month of August with the 2nd annual “Love My Market” photo contest. To participate, snap a photo of what you love about YOUR local farmers’ market whether it’s the unusual produce, your favorite farmer, being with your family or anything else farmers’ market related. Submit the photo to lovemymarket@pcfma.com OR post the photo on Instagram with the hashtag #lovemyPCFMAmarket between August 1st and August 31st. Please limit ONE ENTRY per person. See official rules at http://www.pcfma.com/lovemymarket . Please also include the name of your farmers’ market in your caption or email.

Contestants will have a chance to win the Grand Prize of a one night stay for two at the Capay Valley Bed & Breakfast and tickets to the nearby Hoes Down Festival at Full Belly Farm. Second place prize will be two tickets to the Farm to Fork Dinner presented by CAFF at the Guglielmo Winery in Morgan Hill. Third prizes include “Carrot Cash” (which is good at any farmers’ market that PCFMA operates) and a reusable bag filled with fresh seasonal produce.

Composting & the PCFMA Garden

mint and squashDSC_0007

The PCFMA Office Garden is growing!

We are completing work on another planting area around the south corner of the office. Matt Sylvester, market manager and head PCFMA gardener extraordinaire, and other staff members, have planted various tasty summer veggies like zucchini and other summer squash, tomatoes, fresh herbs, sunflowers, and peppers for our  culinary enjoyment. We await the first tomatoes and watch as squash blossoms slowly grow into zucchini. How cool is it to walk out the office door and pick something fresh for our lunch!? So go ahead – start your own small garden! It’s well worth it!

We began composting as well! The inspiration for the bin arose partly from necessity. We don’t have green bins in Contra Costa County and at the office we have a lot of food scraps. We  also wanted compost we could use on our kitchen garden. PCFMA is a certified green business and the staff here cares about being more eco-friendly, so Sara Haston, Market Chef and DSC_0021Creative Specialist for Cookin’ The Market, thoughtfully wrote up a proposal and was quickly approved to purchase one. After she chose the best one for PCFMA, she found a space for it, and discussed with the staff about how to use it.

Thus far there has been a tremendous interest in it. Sara’s role is to manage the contents to make sure there is a proper ratio of nitrogen elements (think food scraps) to carbon (think leaves, hay and dry plant matter): 1/3 to 2/3. Once it is almost full she will let it sit for a few weeks without adding anymore materials, turn it once a week to aerate it, wait for it to breakdown into usable compost, and then shovel it out into our garden. This Sara’s first time using a bin, as her experience has been with pile composting, so we excited about what we will all learn along the way.

 

Farming in drought: Tomato growers embrace the heat

Tomatoes on the vine at Enos Family Farm in late May, just a couple of weeks away from harvest.

Tomatoes on the vine at Enos Family Farm in late May, just a couple of weeks away from harvest. Photo by Sarah Trent.

In late May, UC Davis published a drought impact report projecting 410,000 acres of farmland left fallow, 14,500 jobs lost, and a $1.7 billion hit to our state’s agricultural economy.

Since tomatoes can be a water-intensive crop, I expected that when I set out to ask farmers about the drought’s effect on their tomatoes, I would hear they were planting less, anticipating smaller yields, making changes to their seed orders for next year, and worrying about the future of their farms.

The truth?

“To be honest,” said Phil Rhodes of Country Rhodes Family Farm in Visalia, “this is our best year ever.”

Like many farmers, Rhodes is very concerned about water — the water level in his well has dropped about a foot a year since the 1990s, to the point where he must invest upwards of $50,000 to drill it deeper in the next year — but for now, the heat accompanying the drought has been a boon to his tomato crop, which came in early and strong. Rhodes brought his first tomatoes to farmers’ markets in mid-May, several weeks earlier than normal.

As long as he has water in his well, Rhodes’ farm is not impacted by water rationing by local or federal water districts. Farmers who rely on water from those sources are facing more dire circumstances: Rhodes admits that in the southern Central Valley region where his farm is located, he sees other farmers leaving fields unplanted.

Those unplanted fields may mean that vegetable farmers who have ground water access, farm in areas less impacted by the drought, or whose infrastructure, climate, and soil conditions allow for less water usage will see increased demand for their crops. So while the drought has substantial implications for California agriculture on the whole, farmers like Rhodes are doing well in spite or even because of it.

Ron Enos in the tomato fields beside his farm stand in Brentwood.

Ron Enos in the tomato fields beside his farm stand in Brentwood. Photo by Sarah Trent.

Ron Enos, who owns certified organic Enos Family Farms in Brentwood, also expects he’ll have a good year with his tomatoes. In his region, many of his neighbors are larger-scale farms growing processing tomatoes, which means that demand for his fresh tomatoes is high.

While the high-heat conditions accompanying the drought spelled trouble for his winter and spring vegetables (which do best in cooler conditions), the hot dry summer bodes well for his summer crops.

He also uses less water than many farmers in his region: over the last few years, Enos has transitioned to using a black plastic mulch in combination with drip irrigation for many of his crops, which cut his water usage to about 30 percent of what he needed before.

Another method for using less water on fruiting crops like tomatoes and squash is dry farming: a method of cutting irrigation early in a plant’s life and forcing it to rely only on existing soil moisture. Some vegetable varieties do especially well in these conditions, which result in smaller, more flavorful fruit. While it’s near impossible to dry farm in the extreme climate of the Central Valley, it works well in coastal regions where the soil retains some moisture through the summer.

Thomas Farm in Aptos, south of Santa Cruz, grows organic dry-farmed tomatoes along with other annual vegetables and many varieties of cut flowers. Josh and Kari Thomas are currently experimenting with dry-farming tomato varieties other than the standard Early Girl. If the drought continues, they said, they may need to transition some of their water-demanding flower fields into vegetable rows. While organic flowers are a very high-value crop for their farm, unfortunately, Josh said, “people don’t buy drought-tolerant flowers.”

For now, the Thomases are holding off on seed and seedling orders for next summer, waiting to see what winter and a much-anticipated El Niño have in store.

Kari Thomas checks out her farm's Early Girl tomato rows, which she and her husband dry farm by cutting irrigation off when plants are about a foot tall.

Kari Thomas checks out her farm’s Early Girl tomato rows, which she and her husband dry farm by cutting irrigation off when plants are about a foot tall. Photo by Sarah Trent.

“There’s not a day goes by that we don’t talk about rain,” said Kari. “There’s a little bit of denial there,” she added. Farmers everywhere and in every climate rely so heavily on weather conditions that they are used to taking each season in stride, adapting as needed and moving forward with their businesses however they can.

Echoing most of the farmers I’ve spoken to while covering this year’s drought, she and Josh said, quite simply: “Hopefully it just rains.”

But, Kari adds, surveying their rows of dahlias, cosmos, tomatoes, potatoes, and onions tucked into a quiet coastal valley, “never has a winter had so much pressure on it.”

 

Sarah Trent can be contacted at sarahtrent@pcfma.com. PCFMA continue to report on drought issues throughout the 2014 season. Stay tuned for monthly updates on how our farmers are faring and what’s happening with California’s many diverse crops due to drought conditions.

June 2014 Market Thymes Newsletter

June-1June 2014 Market Thymes Newsletter

June is Jumpin’!

  • The summer season is upon us and oh, what glorious fruits and vegetables abound! Everything from stone fruit and berries to peppers, tomatoes, corn and summer squash is arriving at your farmers’ market.
  • Stone fruit appears this month. Fire up the grill or get out the canning jars and preserve this sweet taste of summer!
  • It’s barbecue time so toss some zucchini and peppers on the grill. Or cut a big fat peach in half and add to the grill for a sweet dessert. Chef Mario will tell you how.
  • Sarah Trent of PCFMA visited some of our cherry farmers and reports back on how the drought has affected quantity and quality of cherries, not to mention the livelihood of the farmers.

Enjoy the sweet taste of summer in the coming months!

Farmer Matt

 

Matt 2Matt Sylvester is a new young farmer! He was recently featured on a CBS newscast about the new generation of young farmers. He has started Happy Acre Farm with his girlfriend, Helena Tuman, in Sunol.Untitled-4

He says, “Working at PCFMA has opened my eyes to California agriculture. I have been managing farmers’ markets for over two years now.  It is incredibly rewarding to farm, to have my hands get dirty, and to see the results of what hard work, sun, water, and good soil can produce.”

“I love eating fresh fruits and vegetables and it’s nice to look down into my plate of salad and know that everything in it was grown on my one-acre farm. I am able to relate to farmers more than ever before and I believe that this makes me a better and more knowledgeable market manager. Farmers and I chat about the weather, crops, pests, and techniques of trapping gophers. This type of communication strengthens the community of a farmers’ market through mutual respect.”

Read more about their farm on Facebook at Happy Acre Farm and check out the Sunol Ag Park here.

 

In the Pink

The farmers’ market is in full swing this month, brimming with early tomatoes and corn; crunchy little cucumbers; a splendid variety of juicy stone fruits—most notably short-seasoned apricots and cherries; a plump profusion of cantaloupe and other fragrant melons; and a kaleidoscope of jewel-like berries.

Sweet-tart boysenberries, blueberries, blackberries, and the ubiquitous strawberry–all at the peak of their seasons–seem to find their way into my market bag each week But as much as I hate to play favorites, it’s delicate, velvety raspberries I treasure most. Is there any more elegant healthy breakfast than a bowl of raspberries crowned with a dollop of Greek yogurt?

Berry Interesting Facts

-There was a time when raspberries were wildly expensive; and still can be, when

imported from South America and New Zealand. Buy them now at the farmers’ market,

when they are at their peak of ripeness and affordability.

-Like boysenberries and blackberries, raspberries are made up of clusters of tiny sacs that

adhere to a central core. Each sac is bursting with sweet-tart juice.

-If the green hull is still attached to the raspberry, it means it was picked too early and

will undoubtedly be tart.

-Although all taste similar, raspberries are available in red (actually a deep pink), golden,

and the less common “black.”

-Unlike supermarket raspberries that have been enclosed in a plastic clamshell for

an indeterminate length of time, farm-fresh berries should not be stuck together or

moldy.

-To refrigerate raspberries, line a pan with paper towels and arrange the unwashed berries

in a single layer. Top gently with another paper towel and cover tightly

with plastic wrap. Berries are best eaten within 3 days.

-Raspberries are fragile. There is no way around it. If needed, carefully rinse them under a very gentle spray of cold water and pat dry with paper towels. (I rarely, if ever, rinse

organically-grown raspberries.)

-Use uncooked raspberries in salads and compotes; smoothies; pureed in dessert sauces;

perched atop fruit tarts, puddings, or other desserts; or baked into muffins, scones, or

cakes. Raspberries also make an extravagant pie filling; as well as notable jams, jellies,

and preserves.

-1 cup of raspberries weighs in at about 64 calories, 15 carbohydrates, and 8 grams of

fiber. They are high in vitamin C and manganese, and contain fair amounts of iron and

potassium.

-In addition to tasting better, fully-ripe raspberries contain significantly more  antioxidants.

Here is my rendering of a recipe that appeared in Gourmet magazine about 5 years ago. This deceptively simple cake is ready for the oven in about 15 minutes, yet ends up tasting like it came from a chic pâtisserie. It’s lovely with a cup of tea or coffee in the afternoon; and makes a sophisticated dessert for a summer evening. Serve it au natural, or with a spoonful of sweetened crème fraiche, whipped cream, or frozen yogurt. And pray for leftovers.

Raspberry-Buttermilk Cake

1 cup bleached all-purpose flour

1/2 teaspoon baking powder

1/2 teaspoon baking soda

1/4 teaspoon fine sea salt

4 tablespoons (1/2 stick) unsalted butter, at room temperature

2/3 cup plus 1 1/2 tablespoons granulated sugar

1 large egg, at room temperature

1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract

1/2 cup buttermilk or plain yogurt

Optional: finely grated zest of 1 orange or lemon

1 cup farm-fresh raspberries (about 5 ounces)

  1. Place a rack in the center of the oven and preheat to 400 degrees. Butter the bottom and sides of a 9-inch round cake pan. Line the bottom of the pan with parchment paper and butter the parchment. Dust the pan with flour and shake out the excess.
  2. In a medium bowl, combine the flour, baking powder, baking soda, and salt. Whisk gently to blend.
  3. In a large bowl, combine the butter and the 2/3 cup sugar. Beat with an electric mixer on Medium-High speed until pale and fluffy, 2 to 3 minutes. Beat in the egg and vanilla until well blended. Beat in the orange zest, if using.
  4. With the mixer on Low, add the flour mixture in 3 batches, alternating with the buttermilk, and beginning and ending with the flour. Mix just until combined.
  5. Scrape the batter into the prepared cake pan, smoothing the top. Scatter the raspberries over the top and sprinkle with the remaining 1 1/2 tablespoons of sugar. Bake until the cake is golden and just beginning to pull away from the sides of the pan, and a toothpick inserted into the center shows no evidence of uncooked batter, 25 to 30 minutes. Transfer the pan to a wire rack to cool for 10 minutes; then turn out the cake onto the rack to cool 10 to 15 minutes longer. Peel off and discard the parchment. Invert the cake onto a serving plate so the raspberries are on top. Serve barely warm or at room temperature. Serves 6.